1. Перепишите и письменно переведите на родной язык, обращая внимание на перевод инфинитива:
1. The police can be asked to look at the case again.
2. To stop shoplifting, many shops have security cameras, electronic stock control and store detectives.
3. In 3 out of 10 cases, the burglar didn’t even have to use force to get in.
4. Who has the right to decide whether the accused is guilty or innocent?
5. To be a policeman means doing officers work and wearing uniform.
2. Перепишите и письменно переведите на родной язык условные предложения :
1. If the young person is found guilty, the court may transfer the case to a juvenile court for sentence.
2. If the jury finds the accused guilty, then the judge will pass sentence.
3. If no objections to the award are filled within a statutory period, it becomes final and a judgment.
4. If the prosecutor thinks that there is enough evidence, and that a prosecution is needed in the public interest, the case is then presented in the magistrates’ court.
5. If a defendant is found not guilty, he or she cannot be prosecuted for the same offence.
3.Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык, обращая внимание на разные значения слов it, that, one.
1. It is up to the plaintiff to prove the case against the defendant.
2. Its investigations concern limited companies.
3. Let us consider one possible case.
4. Law w is a scheme for controlling the conduct of people, it deals with social interests.
5. The problem of modern times is that of peace and war.
4.Перепишите следующие предложения и переведите их на русский язык, помня о разных значениях слов to be, to have, to do.
1. The scientists have a wide range of experience in fire-scene examinations.
2. News reports do not always give accurate or complete information.
3. The defendant does not have to give evidence.
4. There are many cases to be heard.
5. Much valuable work can be and is being done at Scotland Yard.
5. Перепишите и письменно переведите текст на родной язык:
THEORIES OF PUNISHMENT
Punishment is probably the most controversial aspect of criminal law. As the legal price for violations of society’s mandate, it is both vengeful and retributive. As a protection to the public, it is intended to be a deterrent to potential wrong-doers. In essence it represents the value that society places on the turpitude of the offence and its interest in the offender. The theoretical justification for criminal punishment is based on several factors, including: retribution, correction, deterrence, and incapacitation.
Social motive and politics distinguish among these factors and vary their emphasis according to time, place, and necessity. Punishment is not expiative, though in certain aspects it appears to be. It is human justice meted out for the alleged sake of human preservation.
Punishment is fixed by law and limited by either an indeterminate minimum-maximum or pre-determined mandatory sentence. The rational foundation for determination of the proper amount of sentence rests on these propositions.
The value of punishment must not in any case be less than that which is sufficient to outweigh in the offender’s mind, the profit of committing the offence. It is therefore adapted to the seriousness of the offence, the criminality of the offender, or both.
6. Письменно ответьте на вопрос
What does punishment represent?