Сочинение о русской философии на английском языке
The Russian philosophy, perhaps, one of the few philosophies which has pronounced national character, regards as of paramount importance national problems and questions of a place and a role of Russia in world philosophical process. The Russian philosophy is very original. The Russian philosophy is the spiritual successor of the Byzantine thought. Through Byzantium Ancient Russia borrowed only separate elements of ancient art in the form of translated sources. But further it business did not go. Overdue historical start, youth of East Slavic societies, rather late passing of stages of social and economic development slowed down cultural development. The Russian thought owing to historical circumstances had no philosophical traditions, it created them. The Russian philosophy almost always developed in religion subsoil. Religious and philosophical forms of public consciousness arose approximately at the same time. V. V. Zenkovsky fairly wrote: "The Russian thought forever remained connected with the religious elements, with the religious soil". For the Russian philosophy of people, his spiritual and moral life is not simply special sphere of the outside world, its expression. On the contrary, the person is a microcosm which bears in itself a solution of secret of life, a makrokosm. Only to such person well integral knowledge. In the Russian philosophy of people does not stand apart from other people. All individuals are integrated, they are not isolated from each other. Essence and specifics of the Russian spirit in its conciliarity.
In a question of a periodization of the Russian philosophy there are two main opinions. One philosophers (V. V. Zenkovsky, A.F. Losev, G.G. Shpet) consider that the independent national philosophical thought developed in Russia only in the second half the XVIII century and the beginning of the XIX century. Till this time, they claim that till the Petrovsky era Russia had no and could not generate own philosophy because of the backwardness. Others (A.A. Galaktionov, M. N. Gromov, P.F. Nikandrov, A.D. Sukhov) hold the opposite opinion. They carry the beginning of the Russian philosophy to X-XI centuries, directly connect its sources with adoption of Christianity. Anyway, in the Russian philosophy it is possible to allocate two big periods: the period before philosophy, or the period of formation of the Russian idea, and actually philosophical period. The period before philosophy (the XI-XVII centuries) it is characterized by deep and close connections of elements of philosophical creativity with religious elements of Ancient Russia and theological ideas of the Byzantine Christianity. In literary and religious texts of this time the philosophical perspective is distinctly looked through. It is necessary to understand not developed theoretical system, and set of the ideas, images and concepts of a philosophical order containing in monuments of culture of X-XVII centuries as the term "Old Russian philosophy". Emergence of the first elements of philosophical thought in Ancient Russia as sources testify, goes back to Kirill and Mefodiy's names which are known mainly as great educators of Slavs. In the earliest Old Russian lists "Kirill's Lives" where Konstantin-Kirill's opinion are stated, the author in detail retold views of the teacher on philosophy. On a question: "What is a philosophy?" – Kirill answered: "The knowledge of things divine and human as far as the person can come nearer to God that teaches the person to be the affairs to an image and similarity created it". The second direction in the Russian philosophy of the first half of the XIX century Slavophilism. About supporters of this direction there was a steady representation as about the representatives of the liberal nobility proclaiming special historical mission of Russia, special ways of development of its culture and spiritual life. Such unilateral interpretation of Slavophilism quite often led to that this direction was treated as reactionary or at best as conservative, backward. The similar assessment is far from truth. Slavophiles really opposed the East to the West, remaining in the philosophical, religious historical-philosophical views on the Russian soil.
The second half of the XIX century – the 10th of the XX century – blossoming of the Russian philosophy. During this period the original national philosophy which kernel is the Russian religious philosophy of outstanding representatives V. Solovyov, N. Berdyaev, S. Bulgakov, N. Lossky, L. Shestov, N. Fedorov and others. The 20th – the 80th of the XX century – the period of the Soviet philosophy which basis is the Marxist-Leninist philosophy recognized in the USSR only by right philosophical system is finally made out. The state put philosophical thought under strict control, dissent was stopped in a germ, the philosophy became means of justification of socialist ideology. Nevertheless since 1960th the ideological press starts weakening gradually. In the Soviet philosophy appeared sociological, logical, ethical and esthetic directions of research.
Verba volant, scripta manent.
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