Сочинение о коррупции на английском языке.
Corruption is the use of his position for personal gain. This action is contrary to law.According to macroeconomic and political economy studies, corruption can impede economic growth and development in the interests of society as a whole. In most European countries, corruption is a criminal offence.
Types of corruption:
Domestic corruption is generated by interaction between ordinary citizens and officials. It's different gifts and/or services officer and/or his family. This also includes nepotism.
Business corruption occurs when the interaction between government and business. For example, in the case of any conflict, the parties may seek to enlist the support of the judge's order of judgment in their favor.
Corruption is the Supreme power is Supreme courts and the political leadership in democratic systems. This is a powers group of people, their behavior is implementation of political action in their own interests, to the detriment of voters.
Extortion practiced by officials with authority to interfere in obtaining any license, permits, or from a person besides services which fall within its competence. When extortion by government officials often face faces the choice to bribe or to appeal against the actions of government officials through internal or external oversight body. The solution depends on how the citizen aware of their rights and how costly appeal process.
Collusion occurs under the same conditions, however, differs in that it is beneficial to both parties. In consequence of which harmed the state. For example, the same government official can bribe responsible for the supervision of officials and seamlessly take bribes.
Experience shows that the main cause of corruption is the imperfection of the political institutions that provide internal and external mechanisms for curbing corruption.
In addition, the growth of corruption contribute to some of the subjective and objective circumstances:
-ambiguous and complicated laws that can be interpreted as anything;
-ignorance or misunderstanding of the laws of the population that allows officials to create an artificial bureaucratic obstacles;
-no formed of mechanisms of interaction between government institutions;
-the dependence of the standards and principles underlying the work of the bureaucracy, exclusively from the policy of the ruling elite and not of the company;
-professional incompetence of the bureaucracy and the frankpledge;
-nepotism and political patronage, which lead to the formation of secret agreements that weaken the mechanisms of control of corruption;
-the lack of uniformity in the system of Executive power, in other words, the regulation of the same activity in different instances;
-the low level of citizens ' participation in the control of the state.
But we also have different areas of "enrichment". One of the main ways of corrupt enrichment for the bureaucracy, particularly for the Supreme political elite, is government spending.
Investment projects are largely determined by the decisions that policymakers take in its sole discretion. Large investment projects (in particular, with the participation of foreign corporations) often involve the transfer of exclusive rights to the winner of the contest, which promises officials especially large bribes. Some projects are created specifically to certain groups received rents from those who are appointed as the executor of the project.
Public procurement, as a rule, assume the choice is objectively the best deals from multiple on the basis of competition, but sometimes the officer can ensure the victory of the seller, who promised the most "Commission" from the deal.
Extra-budgetary accounts are often created with a legitimate purpose (pension, road funds, and others) However, in some funds, for example, to support people with disabilities, income can greatly exceed the actual costs that stimulates the desire of some officials to assign a "surplus". On the contrary, in case of deficit officials often decide in its sole discretion, who will eventually get the money.
The most common external corruption where the transaction is directly between official and private person. according to the doctrine of behaviorism getting in the team man adopts rules of conduct. For example, if person a new official and his new team attitude to bribery is strictly positive, then he will take this relationship as normal. However, other researchers believe that the person always remains the possibility of exit from such an environment; and fight and give publicity to, or ignoring abuses by micro society, but not in violation of the man himself.
As the state eradicate corruption, the costs of fighting corruption increases so that the complete elimination of corruption will have to spend endless effort. Comparing losses from corruption and the cost of eradication of corruption at each level,it is possible to find the optimal level of corruption, reflecting the lowest total losses. It turns out that society is more profitable not to destroy the corruption to end, simply because of the high costs of this process. However, do not forget about the continued effectiveness of the funds spent on the fight against corruption.
In addition, overreliance on combating corruption at the expense of eliminating its causes can deprive administrative system flexibility, and the population of civil liberties. The ruling group may use punitive legislation to strengthen its control over society and the persecution of political opponents.
This shows us that corruption in very large volumes dangerous to the state and the state occurs rough changes. In Kazakhstan at the present stage of development of the country corruption has penetrated almost all patterns, but nevertheless we have to fight it to our lives become more honest.
Verba volant, scripta manent.
P.S. Если вы заметили у меня ошибку, обязательно сообщите.