I. Перепишите и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на употребление окончания -s.
1. Newton’s law of motion was written in Latin, because only this language was used in science at that time.
2. On a large diagram in a dispatcher’s room small lights display the location of each train.
3. The trains on five routes of Denver’s commuter network carry 1 million passengers a day.
II. Перепишите и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на употребление оборота there+to be
1. There was something wrong with the engine of my car and I asked the mechanic to examine it.
2. There are no traffic lights at the crossroad that is why it is a very dangerous place.
3. There is usually a considerable increase in passenger traffic in summer.
III. Перепишите и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на употребление времён группы Indefinite (Present, Past, Future) в действительном залоге. Выпишите сказуемые и укажите их видовременные формы.
1. You will find all the necessary information about the train movement in the railway-guide.
2. The total length of all railway lines in Russia is equal to three times the length of the Equator.
3. When we entered the car, we opened the window because it was very stuffy in the compartment.
IV. Перепишите и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на употребление времён группы Indefinite (Present, Past, Future) в страдательном залоге. Выпишите сказуемые и укажите их видовременные формы.
1. Tomorrow the movement of trains at that section of the line will be restricted because of track repair work.
2. The inside body of the car is upholstered with materials that are easily washed.
3. When the first self-propelled vehicles appeared, measures were taken to limit their speed in many countries.
V. Перепишите и переведите предложения, обращая внимание на употребление прилагательных в сравнительной и превосходной степенях. Подчеркните прилагательные в английских предложениях и укажите степень сравнения.
1. Broken stone is the most suitable material for ballast.
2. Travelling in an open-type coach is cheaper than in a sleeping car because sleeping cars are more convenient.
3. In the Grand Prix motor racing just a few seconds sometimes separate the fastest car from the slowest car in the race.
VI. Перепишите и переведите предложения, употребив прилагательные, данные в скобках, в сравнительной или превосходной степени.
1. The double-track railways are (convenient) than the single track railways if the traffic on these lines is very heavy.
2. At the conference the engineers discussed (recent) developments in the field of electronics.
3. The bridge crosses the river at its (narrow) point.
VII. Перепишите и переведите текст:
THE TRANS-SIBERIAN MAINLINE
“The Great Siberian Track” is a well-known name in the history of the Russian State. It was given to the unique railway that connected the European part of the country with the Pacific Coast.
The history of railway construction in Russia started at the end of the 19th century. Railway mainlines were laid down from the Western borders of the country to St. Petersburg and Moscow, from the center to the Volga region and from Ural to Central Asia. In 1892, the railway network in Russia had a total length of 32,000 km. That very year Samara-Zlatoust railway was built which later became a liaison between railways in the European part of Russia and the Trans-Siberian Mainline.
On March 15 1891, Alexander III issued an imperial prescript addressed to future Emperor Nicholas II that stated: “I command to start constructing a railway across all Siberia to connect the Siberian region with the European part of Russia. I also entrust you with ground-breaking* of the Great Siberian Track in Vladivostok.”
Two projects of the future mainline were proposed – “the southern version” and “the northern version”. “The northern version” suggested by the Minister of Railways K.N. Posyet won. According to his project the railway was shorter by 400 km and was passing by the Siberian high road** and populated areas.
The building of the Great Siberian Track began in 1893. Construction rates were very fast despite the fact that the railroad went through swamps, thick taiga, crossed major rivers and huge mountains. In less than 15 years, more than 8,600 km of track were laid down. At first 10,000 workers were involved in the construction. Later their number went up to 100,000. Job and living conditions were extremely tough. The main tools were spades, picks, axes, wheelbarrows and horse-drawn carts.
The building of the gigantic mainline was a heroic deed accomplished by Russian construction workers due to their tenacious efforts and courage. Some of Trans-Siberian stations bear their names – Rukhlovo, Vyazemskaya, Baranovsky, Snarsky, Adrinovka, etc. The Minister of Railways Vitte wrote: “The Great Siberian Railway breathed life into boundless Siberian lands.”
Notes: * ground-breaking – начало строительства (дороги)
** high road – тракт
VIII. Укажите, какие из следующих утверждений соответствуют содержанию текста. Используйте фразы: It is right. It is wrong. Исправьте неверные утверждения.
1. The Trans-Siberian Mainline connects the Asian part of Russia with the Pacific Coast. 2. Alexander III commanded to start constructing the Great Siberian Track. 3. The first rail of the future Trans-Siberian Railway was laid down in Vladivostok. 4. The project of the Trans Siberian Mainline was proposed by the Minister of Railways Vitte. 5. The length of this railway is more than 5,000 km. 6. Foreign workers and engineers took part in the construction. 7. The track went through swamps and taiga. 8. The latest machines and mechanisms were used for the railway construction. 9. The construction lasted 15 years. 10. The Great Siberian Railway breathed life into boundless Siberian lands.