в данных статьях нужно найти все возможные метафоры. это для курсовой,но не получается у меня их найти в достаточном количестве. помогите пожалуйста.
Instafamous: Meet the social media influencers redefining celebrity
'Celebrity' is diversifying. Where once only film stars, singers or high-end fashion models represented by powerful agencies would fit under this classification, social media influencers are now working their way to the fore. Instead of turning to the pages of magazines, catwalks or films, Generations Y and Z now look to Instagram, Facebook and Twitter in search of their idols.
These idols are the models, bloggers, trainers and influencers who have become recognised names - at least online – initially without agents, simply by attracting huge followings on their social media accounts. They now form the new ‘It’ crowd with their cult followings, steering trends, setting agendas and often commanding thousands for posts apparently showing just a snippet of their day.
The late model Katie May is a prime example of how models can establish themselves outside of the standard channels, by using Instagram, Snapchat and other platforms at their disposal. At the time of her death, she had over one million Instagram followers but has never had a Wikipedia page. The supermodel and Oscar-nominated actress Chloe Sevigny has 284,000 by comparison.
News that supers such as Kendall Jenner, Gigi Hadid and Cara Delevingne can charge up to $300,000 per post astonished many. But while few models can expect to earn anywhere near that amount, their posts can still prove lucrative once they establish an engaged following.
How do social media influencers get famous?
In a nutshell: by amassing and maintaining a dedicated following, according to Frank Spadafora, former casting director and head of the analytics app D’Marie Archive.
But what seems simple in practice is no mean feat in a world where people from all demographics are active on some social channel.
Mr Spadafora says hallmarks of successful influencer accounts include conveying a sense of humour, a point of view, and presenting users with parts of the world or a culture they do not have access to. After establishing a sizeable following, the next step is maintaining it. “My biggest tip is: ‘repetition is key’. Audiences like consistency so using specific hashtags on specific days each week will keep followers glued to accounts.”
Social media is also providing unsigned models with a platform to attract the attention of agencies and talent scouts, says Mr Spadafora. “A lot of us in casting positions are constantly scrolling Instagram’s newest ‘discover’ feature and leaving comments on people’s images like ‘Are you repped by an agency?’ If they say no then I often tag an agent I’m friendly with to take a look."
Instagram is the obvious key to success for models in terms of social media channels. According to D’Marie’s analysis of 8,000 influencers, 89 per cent have an Instagram, but only 20 per cent have a Twitter and just 16 per cent have a public/ celebrity Facebook page.
Beauty blogger Sophie Hannah Richardson has almost 90,000 Instagram followers and 9,000 YouTube subscribers.
Brands keen for the exposure her following offers now contact her to ask if she will review their products. “I'm really fortunate that now I've established a strong following, brands do approach me, whether this be through a styled photo or a tutorial for my YouTube channel SHRstyling,” says Richardson. “I've worked with many makeup brands such as Illamasqua, Urban Decay and Rimmel London.” She is also optimistic about the financial returns becoming established as a social media influencer can bring in the long term. “There are many beauty bloggers out there such as Fleur De Force (1.4 million subscribers) or Tanya Burr (3.4 million subscribers) who are already making money. Whether it can progress into a career is something I'd be interested in as it's only really been in the recent years that bloggers and influencers have started making money through this type of media.”
Like many other influencers, she recognises the importance of developing a unique personal brand. “I began by taking snaps of my #OOTD's (outfit of the day) and this progressed into taking quality images of my beauty and fashion style. This, tagging in brands and being re-grammed made my following increase. I like to think people are flocking to my Instagram page to find something different. My aim is to be the girl with that creative, bold beauty look that nobody has done yet.”
Selfie esteem problems: How do bizarre online beauty crazes like the A4 paper challenge take hold?
The top of her disappearing stomach is taut behind an almost translucent sheath of white. A look of triumph flickers across her face. The girl pouts sweetly, knowing she's been successful, waiting for the “likes” to roll in. She's completed the A4 paper challenge: proving to the world via Instagram that her abdomen is small enough to be concealed by a 21cm piece of paper. Never has the phrase “paper thin” rung quite so true.
The A4 paper challenge is the latest in a long line of online beauty and fitness challenges to sweep the internet. The newest trend launched recently on Weibo, the Chinese equivalent of Twitter, where thousands of women have taken part, using the hashtag #A4waist. The challenge is simple: girls are photographed face-on, holding a piece of A4 paper over their tummies to show how narrow their waists are. If the sheet of paper hides your tummy, congratulations, you have an A4 waist and have “won” the challenge. The game was picked up by a number of Chinese celebrities and has since gone viral.
But the bizarre challenge is not the first online beauty craze to emerge from China. In the past year, numerous online challenges have come and gone, from the tummy button challenge in June last year, where thousands of navel-gazing netizens posted photos of themselves on social media reaching around their backs to touch their tummy buttons, to the collarbone coin challenge, which saw women balancing rolls of coppers in the hollows between their necks and their collarbones. Most recently, in January this year, the under-boob pen challenge encouraged women to tuck pens underneath their breasts. If the pen stays put, you're a “real woman”, apparently.
Natasha Devon MBE, founder of the campaigning group Self-Esteem team, is concerned that women who participate in these challenges are choosing to objectify themselves. “I think it's incredibly frustrating that for all the talk about women being objectified by multi-billion-pound corporations and a still fundamentally patriarchal society, they then choose to objectify themselves in this way,” says Devon. “Comparing your body to an inanimate object or chopping your body into disparate parts is the most dehumanising thing you can do to yourself. Visually and in broader terms, it speaks of a need for validation and to be noticed.”
With artfully edited celebrity selfies available to anyone who logs on to Instagram, the pressure on young people to look perfect is almost overwhelming. Is it any wonder, then, that the Kylie Jenner big lip challenge was popular for a short time last April? Young girls keen to emulate the plumped-up lips of their idol took to sucking on bottles or shot glasses to puff up their lips. Before long, photos of bruised, swollen mouths flooded the site. Jenner, of course, remained tight-lipped about her own surgery but spoke out against the challenge, saying that “I'm not here to encourage people/young girls to look like me or to think this is the way they should look”.
Social media, according to Devon, only feeds the frenzy. “Social media unites communities and that can be incredibly positive,” she says. “But when that community is a peculiar mixture of self-loathing, low self-esteem and medical-definition narcissism (not to be confused with Baroness' Bakewell's definition) then it can escalate incredibly quickly into something very toxic and damaging.”
Of course, with every beauty challenge comes a beauty backlash, and the A4 waist challenge is no different. In response to the latest photos, many girls have taken to posting counter-pictures of themselves posing behind degree certificates or college diplomas, thus proving women are more than their figures.
Julia Sherman, who lives in Los Angeles, is one such woman. A photo of her not hiding her stomach behind her larger-than A4 Batchelor of Fine Arts certificate from New York University has gained more than 1000 likes on Instagram since she posted it five days ago. “Here's some old scrap of paper I found hiding in the back of my closet,” she jokes, holding her diploma. Arguably, the most encouraging part of these ever more peculiar challenges is how quickly they're parodied online